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Bloating, belching and intestinal gas: How to avoid them 如何避免腹胀、打嗝和肠胀气

如何避免腹胀、打嗝和肠胀气



腹胀、打嗝、肠胀气及其引起的疼痛令人感到尴尬和不适。以下是导致这些症状和体征的原因覧以及预防方法。



腹胀、打嗝和排气是正常生理现象,通常因吞咽了气体或因食物经过消化道时分解所致。你可能只是偶尔感到腹部胀气和胀痛,也可能一天经历好几次。当腹胀和腹痛干扰到日常活动时,其可能预示着你的身体状况出现了一些严重问题。找出减少和避免腹胀腹痛的方法,并且明确什么时候需要去看医生。

腹胀:气体在胃部和肠道聚积

如果气体不能通过打嗝或排气排出体外,就会聚积在胃肠道,从而引起腹胀。腹胀常伴随腹痛覧可以是轻度的阵痛,也可以是剧烈而尖锐的疼痛。排气或者排便对缓解疼痛有一定帮助。

腹胀可能与下述原因有关:

吃脂肪含量高的食物。脂肪能延迟胃排空,并能增强饱腹感。

压力或焦虑。

吸烟。

胃肠道发生了感染、阻塞或疾病。

肠激惹综合征,其疾病状态为腹痛、痉挛或肠功能紊乱。

乳糜泻或乳糖不耐症等疾病状态,是由于肠道无法消化和吸收食物中的某些组分而引起的。

欲减少腹胀,可以试试降低产气食物的摄入量。许多碳水化合物能产生气体,以下是常见的罪魁祸首:

烘豆子(译者:一种豆子的烹饪方法,多用酱汁炖)

西兰花

球芽甘蓝

卷心菜

碳酸饮料

菜花

口香糖

苹果、桃子和梨等水果

硬糖

莴苣

打嗝:排出多余气体

打嗝是身体自胃内排出多余气体的方式。如果饮食过快、边进食边谈话、嚼口香糖或吮吸硬糖、饮用碳酸饮料或用吸管饮水,你可能会吞咽进多余气体。

胃酸反流或胃食道返流症同样也能导致吞入多余气体。如果胃酸反流入食管,可能引起反复吞咽,以便清除食管内物质。而这样会导致吞咽进更多气体,进而又导致打嗝。

有些人紧张时习惯于吞咽空气覧即使他们并没在进食或饮水。在其他情况下,慢性打嗝与胃粘膜的炎症(胃炎)、消化性溃疡或胃排空延迟(胃轻瘫)有关。

你可以通过以下方法减少打嗝:

缓慢地进食和饮水。减缓饮食速度有助于你更少的吸入空气,同样地,也要避免用吸管饮水。

避免饮用碳酸饮料和啤酒,它们会释放出二氧化碳气体。

戒掉口香糖和硬糖。在咀嚼口香糖或吮吸硬糖时,吞咽次数会比平时增多,那样会吞咽进空气。

不要吸烟。吸入烟雾时,同时也吸入和吞咽了空气。

检查假牙。契合度差的义齿在饮食过程中会导致吞咽空气量增多。

治疗胃痛。偶尔,轻度胃灼热能通过非处方抗酸剂或其他措施进行治疗。而胃食管反流病则可能需要处方药物或其他治疗方法来医治。

排气:结肠内的气体聚积

肠内气体主要由结肠内未消化的食物发酵产生,例如植物纤维。如果消化系统没有完全分解食物中的某些成分,也会产生气体。例如谷蛋白或者乳制品中的糖以及水果。

其他肠内气体来源可能包括:

结肠内的食物残渣。

因使用抗生素或其他药物从而导致肠道菌群的改变。

碳水化合物吸收障碍,可导致消化系统益生菌群的平衡失调。

吞咽的空气进入结肠。

便秘覧食物残渣在结肠内滞留越久,发酵时间越长。

有时,肠内气体意味着消化障碍,例如肠激惹综合症或乳糖不耐症。

为避免多余的肠内气体,以下方法可能有所帮助:

避免食用影响最大的食物,常见的罪魁祸首包括豆类、花生、扁豆、卷心菜、洋葱、西兰花、菜花、香蕉、葡萄干、全麦面包、色拉和碳酸饮料。如果对你来说,乳制品会导致肠胀气,那么就试试低乳糖或不含乳糖的替代品。

少食用高脂肪食物,这是因为脂肪消化速度缓慢,使得食物的发酵时间延长。

暂时减少食用高纤维素食物。纤维素有助于消化,但是许多高纤维素食物也能产气。暂时减少一小段时间后,慢慢增加纤维素食物摄入量到正常水平。在食用高纤维素食物的同时服用比诺片(译者:药物商品名,是以酶为主的膳食补充剂,可减少胃肠道气体量),来减少纤维素食物产生的气体量。

缓慢饮食。尽量在放松的环境下就餐,在压力下或匆忙就餐会妨碍消化。

活动起来。饭后散散步有助于消化。

试试非处方药物治疗。非处方药,例如Lactaid或Dairy Ease(译者:药物商品名)有助于消化乳糖。含有二甲基硅油的非处方药能帮助去除肠道内气体的泡沫。

何时去看医生

阶段性的过度腹胀、打嗝和排气可以自愈。如果饮食习惯改变后症状并没有改善或者出现以下症状时,你需要咨询医生:

腹泻

便秘

严重、持久或反复发作的腹痛

恶心或呕吐

便血

体重减轻

发热

胸痛

这些症状可能是潜在消化系统疾病的征兆。肠道的症状令人尴尬覧但不要因为尴尬就不去寻求帮助,治疗方法是行之有效的。



Bloating, belching and intestinal gas: How to avoid them

Bloating, belching, gas and gas pains can be embarrassing and uncomfortable. Here's what causes these signs and symptoms and how you can prevent them.

By Mayo Clinic staff www.6park.com



Bloating, burping and passing gas are natural and are usually caused by swallowed air or the breakdown of food through digestion. You may experience gas and gas pains only occasionally or repeatedly in a single day. When gas and gas pains interfere with your daily activities, it may be an indication of something serious. Find out how to reduce or avoid gas and gas pains, and when you may need to see your doctor.

Bloating: Gas buildup in your stomach and intestines www.6park.com



When gas doesn't pass through belching or flatulence, it can build up in the stomach and intestines and lead to bloating. Bloating is often accompanied by abdominal pain either mild and dull or sharp and intense. Passing gas or having a bowel movement may relieve the pain. www.6park.com



Bloating may be related to: www.6park.com



Eating fatty foods. Fat delays stomach emptying and can increase the sensation of fullness

Stress or anxiety

Smoking

A gastrointestinal infection, blockage or disease

Irritable bowel syndrome, a condition characterized by abdominal pain or cramping and changes in bowel function

Conditions such as celiac disease or lactose intolerance in which the intestines aren't able to digest and absorb certain components of food www.6park.com



To reduce bloating, it may help to avoid or reduce the amount of gas-producing foods you eat. Many carbohydrates cause gas, and the following items are common culprits: www.6park.com



Baked beans

Broccoli

Brussels sprouts

Cabbage

Carbonated drinks

Cauliflower

Chewing gum

Fruits such as apples, peaches and pears

Hard candy

Lettuce www.6park.com



Belching: Getting rid of excess air www.6park.com



Belching or burping is your body's way of expelling excess air from your stomach. You may swallow excess air if you eat or drink too fast, talk while you eat, chew gum or suck on hard candies, drink carbonated beverages, or drink through a straw. www.6park.com



Acid reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can have the same effect. If stomach acid backs up into your esophagus, you may swallow repeatedly to clear the material. This can lead to swallowing more air and further belching. www.6park.com



Some people swallow air as a nervous habit even when they're not eating or drinking. In other cases, chronic belching is related to inflammation of the stomach lining (gastritis), peptic ulcer disease or delayed stomach emptying (gastroparesis). www.6park.com



You can reduce belching if you: www.6park.com



Eat and drink slowly. Taking your time can help you swallow less air. Also, avoid drinking through a straw. www.6park.com



Avoid carbonated drinks and beer. They release carbon dioxide gas.

Skip the gum and hard candy. When you chew gum or suck on hard candy, you swallow more often than normal. Part of what you're swallowing is air.

Don't smoke. When you inhale smoke, you also inhale and swallow air.

Check your dentures. Poorly fitting dentures can cause you to swallow excess air when you eat and drink.

Treat heartburn. For occasional, mild heartburn, over-the-counter antacids or other remedies may be helpful. GERD may require prescription-strength medication or other treatments.

Flatulence: Gas buildup in the colon www.6park.com



Intestinal gas is typically caused by the fermentation of undigested food, such as plant fiber, in the colon. Gas can also form when your digestive system doesn't completely break down certain components in foods, such as gluten or the sugar in dairy products and fruit. www.6park.com



Other sources of intestinal gas may include: www.6park.com



Food residue in your colon

Changes in intestinal bacteria due to antibiotics or other medications

Carbohydrate malabsorption, which can upset the balance of helpful bacteria in your digestive system

Swallowed air that migrates to your colon

Constipation the longer food waste remains in your colon, the more time it has to ferment www.6park.com



Sometimes, gas indicates a digestive disorder, such as irritable bowel syndrome or lactose intolerance. www.6park.com



To prevent excessive gas, it may help to: www.6park.com



Avoid the foods that affect you most. Common offenders include beans, peas, lentils, cabbage, onions, broccoli, cauliflower, bananas, raisins, whole-wheat bread, salads and carbonated drinks. If dairy products are a problem, try low-lactose or lactose-free varieties.

Eat fewer fatty foods. Fat slows digestion, giving food more time to ferment.

Temporarily cut back on high-fiber foods. Fiber aids digestion, but many high-fiber foods are also great gas producers. After a break, slowly add fiber back to your diet. Add products such as Beano to high-fiber foods to help reduce the amount of gas they produce.

Eat slowly. Try to make meals relaxed occasions. Eating when you're stressed or on the run can interfere with digestion.

Get moving. It may help to take a short walk after eating.

Try an over-the-counter remedy. Products such as Lactaid or Dairy Ease can help digest lactose. Products containing simethicone help break up the bubbles in gas. www.6park.com



When to see your doctor www.6park.com



Bouts of excess bloating, belching and gas often resolve on their own. Consult your doctor if your symptoms don't improve with changes in eating habits or you notice: www.6park.com



Diarrhea

Constipation

Severe, prolonged or recurrent abdominal pain

Nausea or vomiting

Bloody stools

Weight loss

Fever

Chest pain www.6park.com



These symptoms could signal an underlying digestive condition. Intestinal symptoms can be embarrassing but don't let embarrassment keep you from seeking help. Treatment is available.